The Massachusetts State House

The Massachusetts State House

On July 4, 1798, enduring fathers of the American Revolution satisfied in Boston for the
commitment of the Massachusetts State Residence. Guv Samuel Adams and patriot Paul
Revere put the cornerstone, and Revere would later on roll copper sheeting for the
capitol’s dome. With pomp and situation, stone for the structure was drawn by fifteen
white horses– one for each state in the Union. The State House would come to be known
as one of the best works of neoclassical architecture in the United States. It also
boasts a prime area, resting on Beacon Hill and ignoring the prosperous Back Bay
and Boston Commons.

When the architect Charles Bulfinch created this elegant seat of government, he was
inspired by the neoclassical Somerset Residence that rose above London’s River Thames.
Architectural enthusiasts explain the State Residence design as intermediate between Georgian
and Federal styles. It is mainly red brick with white accents. It has delicate Corinthian
columns, gently arching windows, and a vast golden dome.

The golden dome has actually been through a few vital changes. The mound was initially
covered in wooden shingles. After Paul Revere laid copper sheeting, the dome was
doned with gold plating. It was painted gray during The second world war to decrease its
vulnerability to prospective Axis bombers; if there had actually been a blackout, the government’s.
dome would’ve shone notably in the moonlight.

The State Home dome is capped with a pinecone. This represents the state’s.
gratitude for the pine tree. Early Boston architecture, including the State Residence itself,.
relied upon pinewood from surrounding forests.

As state government grew, Massachusetts developed additions to Bulfinch’s work. In 1895, a.
yellow brick Brigham Annex was put up for new bureaucrats’ workplaces. Two marbled.
stone wings were added in the early 1900s to offer fireproofing and extra office.
area. Inside the State Home today are the Governor’s workplace, the chambers of your home.
and Senate, and 3 halls.

Doric Hall is named for the 10 Doric columns that line its interior. These were originally.
sculpted trunks from pine trees, however today the columns are made from plaster and iron. Doric.
Hall is home to many statues and pictures, consisting of an 1826 statue of George.
Washington. In the marble corridor just outside Doric, the “Hear Us” screen honors the.
contributions of several prominent females from Massachusetts history, including.
Dorothea Dix and Lucy Stone.

The Hall of Flags honors Massachusetts residents who served in battles. It shows copies.
of fight flags from all the wars in which Massachusetts programs have taken part.
(The original fabric flags are being preserved elsewhere.) These consist of flags from the.
Spanish-American War, World Wars I and II, the Korean War, Berlin, and Vietnam. The.
Hall of Flags is also embellished with murals, such as “The Return of the Colors,” which.
depicts the return of flags after Civil War combat in 1865.

The Great Hall, finished in1990, is the newest architectural addition to the State Home.
This outstanding, airy hall is made from tri-colored marble topped with a glass dome.
Circular patterns on the floor were set up to create a clock concept; a couple of years previously,.
the state legislature had obtained a lavish $100,000 clock made in modernist design.
The room is likewise decorated with 351 flags from Massachusetts areas. The expansive.
space is used for big state events. A statue of President John F. Kennedy depicts him.
stepping across the Hall– possibly to meet a nearby figure of Horace Mann or.
Daniel Webster.

2 statues of Colonial American ladies stand on the State Residence yard. One is of Anne.
Hutchinson, whose religious teachings resulted in her excommunication from Massachusetts.
Bay Nest in 1638. She then co-founded Rhode Island on the principle of spiritual.
flexibility. The second statue is of Mary Dyer. In 1660, Bostonians hanged her for.
violating a ban versus Quakers traveling in their nest. Dyer’s statue eerily overlooks.
the site of her execution: the gallows on Boston Common. She is among four individuals.
referred to as the Boston Martyrs. Along with the spirits of Anne Hutchinson, Sam Adams,.
John Hancock, and other influential Americans, Mary Dyer’s spirit survives at the State.



Abe Lincoln: An Extraordinary Leader

Abe Lincoln: An Amazing Leader

Senators McCain and Hoeven Visit Tallinn, April 15, 2014.
Source: Flickr

Perhaps noted as one of the best United States presidents of all time, Abraham Lincoln’s early life may not have reflected his prospective greatness. He failed in company. He lost election to the state legislature, Speaker of the House, election for Congress, visit of land officer, U.S. Senate twice and nomination for Vice President. After those eight major failures, Lincoln was elected President of the United States. The number of people would have kept going like Lincoln did?

Numerous issues that we consider today pale in contrast to what happened in the late 1850’s and middle 1860’s. Lincoln dealt with eleven southern states that had withdrawed from the Union. Eleven states formed the Confederate States of America during his presidency.

Americans may believe that there are departments among our country today. There was a massive department throughout the Civil War period. Americans actually passed away on both sides of the war: North and South.

There were a number of key challenges that Lincoln dealt with as U.S. President:

1. Lincoln was president during the American Civil War, which lasted four years

About 5 weeks after Lincoln was inaugurated as the 16th United States President, the American Civil War began. Lincoln was president when the nation was literally breaking down.

Department might exist in between households. Regrettably, some member of the family may go years without speaking with one another. Are issues within families really that horrible compared with the discontent during the Civil War? Some families were divided so much by the war that one boy may have defended the North while another son of the same family defended the South.

2. The most American casualties occurred during the Lincoln Administration

600,000 to 700,000 Americans passed away in the Civil War. The American Civil War casualties surpass the United States’ losses in all of its other wars from The American Transformation to the present.

Do any of us think that we have such an enormous obligation? Lincoln had an overwhelming responsibility of having the most American casualties during his term as president. More Americans passed away from war during Lincoln’s presidency than all the other American presidents incorporated.

3. Lincoln struggled with Depression

Lincoln, who resided in the 19th century, did not have access to antidepressants, such as Prozac, to take as prescribed medication nor might he go to a drug store and purchase St. John’s Wort over the counter.

Lincoln never had the luxury of having access to contemporary treatments. Lincoln’s job was to handle a country that was divided by war. At times, your problems might appear as huge as Lincoln’s battles, primarily since you are the one who is presently sustaining a particular issue. All of us have typical and special problems. Can you think of if you weren’t so lucky and had restricted access to treatments like Lincoln? Luckily, we do have the luxury of modern-day medication.

4. Lincoln was assassinated

The North, The Union, beat the South, The Confederacy. The South gave up to the North on April 9th, 1865. Lincoln was assassinated five days after the Civil War ended and passed away the morning after he was shot.

Do you believe you feel unappreciated by the work you’ve done? Lincoln united his nation as president, issued the Emancipation Proclamation to end slavery, inspired numerous people while dealing with anxiety, was among the most kindest and good-hearted presidents our country has ever had and exactly what was the thanks that he got? He was eliminated.

Many times, Lincoln was a leader. He kept America together so we could still be called “The United States of America.” He led by example. In his 2nd inaugural address, Lincoln stated that he wanted “malice toward none” and he wanted “to bind up the country’s wounds.” Unfortunately, Lincoln never ever got to see any of his efforts and results implemented. The United States owes Lincoln a big debt of gratitude.

Like Lincoln, each of us has actually gotten rid of problems and has actually achieved greatness in our own method. You might not keep in mind some challenges that you conquered, such as when you discovered how to walk or talk. There are difficulties you conquered that you most likely do remember very well, such as completing a job, winning a race, graduating from school or establishing a profession. Every one of you has a capacity for achievement like Abe Lincoln. It is up to you to find the achievement within yourself.

Wireless Internet Is A Political Issue… Again.

Wireless Internet Is A Political Concern … Again.

Source: Flickr

All over the world ubiquitous broadband Internet access is bringing nations more detailed together. It surprises lots of when they find out that in China the average resident has access to much faster download speeds and at a much lower cost than the average American. Of course the Chinese have to handle that they are seeing a censored Internet, however even that is getting better daily. In Europe a person would be hard pushed to discover a location they COULD N’T connect wirelessly to the Web, while in the US users should go to a certain coffee shop or airport to do the exact same thing. It appears that the United States is behind the curve in offering budget friendly Internet access to its citizens, and short of socialized services, so what can be done?

U.S. Rep. Jay Inslee (D-Wash.) introduced the Wireless Development Act of 2007 early this year to try and close the gap between the United States and other countries in the area of broadband Wireless Internet penetration within the consumer market. This really closely appears like the Wireless Innovation Act of 2006 sponsored by John Kerry (WINN) which failed to pass the previous year but has actually been reintroduced as well. Particularly the costs is intended to “use spectrum in the spaces or ‘white spaces’ between broadcast channels two and 51 when the change from analog to digital television is complete in 2 years. With the capacity to transmit data over longer ranges with less power, this prime spectrum, now reserved mainly for tv broadcasting, might support a large range of ingenious cordless gadgets and services that aren’t useable in other frequencies”, states Jay Inslee (D-Wash.) who is likewise co-sponsoring the costs.

WINN ’07 might be the ticket the country needs to enhance the consumer market penetration of broadband cordless Web, which would obviously cause brand-new services and products both evident and unidentified. This type of legislature is designed to take quickly, decisive action and correct an obvious problem. This of course indicates it will certainly be postponed. So where are our ground breaking bills now?:.

H.R. 1597 – To need the FCC to provide a final order regarding tv white areas.
Sponsor: Representative Inslee, Jay [WA-1] (presented 3/20/2007).

Latest Significant Action: 3/21/2007 Described House subcommittee. Status: Described the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Web.

S. 234 – An expense to need the FCC to provide a final order regarding tv white spaces.
Sponsor: Sen Kerry, John F. [MA] (presented 1/9/2007).

Latest Major Action: 1/9/2007 Referred to Senate committee. Status: Read two times and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

It is clear the definitive costs isn’t exactly tearing its method through the hallowed halls of your house and Senate. Naturally costs require time to pass, and there is a lot of pork to be contributed to this one yet so we still have time. So why precisely is this bill essential to the United States if its just going to let its citizens browse the Internet more easily? John Kerry said, “The bill would serve communities big and little, enabling the shipment of broadband that will link entrepreneur with their customers, students with dynamic new knowing resources and first responders with victims in crisis.” With that in mind, the expense appears a bit more relevant to the county as something more than an entertainment device.

what is the U.S. senate committee on Energy and Natural Resources?

The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources consider, report, and oversee some of the most important legislation of the United States Congress. 

The following major áreas of this Committee: energy resources, nuclear energy; and more like the public lands and their energy resources; the surface mines, Federal coal, gas and oil and water resources. 

The sector of energy and natural resources is crucial for the world economy. Increased demand, price fluctuations and environmental issues contributed to creating an atmosphere of unprecedented challenges and change for many of acting in this sector of activity.
Companies in this sector are mainly capital-intensive and relevant tangible assets. To ensure the ability to meet their valuation and related advisory needs American Appraisal maintains the world’s largest team of experts in the evaluation of tangible assets. With experts in evaluation at the offices strategically located worldwide, we are ready to perform the review or advisory related to this servisse.

Members and Elections

Article I of the US Constitution says that each state can elect two senators. The US Constitution also says that no constitutional amendment can remove the right to equal representation of a given state without its consent. The District of Columbia and US territories are not entitled to any representation in the US Senate. As there are currently 50 States, the total of senators working in the US Senate is one hundred. The senator from each state with longer experience in the Senate is known as a senior senator, and the senator with less time experience as a junior senator. “This convention, however, has no special meaning.

The senators’ office term is 6 years. Every two years elections are held for the US Senate, each of these elections and for the choice of about a third of positions in the Senate. In a given election, they are never held elections for two positions for the Senate to a single given US state. Elections to the Senate are held every even-numbered years on the first Tuesday of November, coinciding with the elections for the House of Representatives. Each senator is elected by the electorate of their states. Generally, the Republican and Democratic parties choose their candidates Senators months before this election, in primary elections. As for the rules that define the participation of candidates for senator of other political parties and candidates without political affiliation vary from state to state. In the election for Senator, in almost all US states, the candidate with the plurality of votes is considered the winner of the election in the given state – even though it has a majority of votes (51%). The two exceptions are the states of Louisiana and Washington, in which case no candidate gets a majority of votes, a second vote is held, where the two candidates with the most votes take part.

Once elected, a senator continues to serve in the Senate until the end of his office term, death or resignation. In addition, the US Constitution allows the Senate to expel any member, by a vote where they are needed at least two-thirds vote in favor of expulsion. Throughout the history of the Senate, 15 members were expelled, and 14 were expelled between 1861 and 1862, for supporting the secession of the Confederate States of America, which led to the American Civil War. Since then, no senator was expelled from the Senate. However, since 1862, several expulsion processes occurred. In some cases, this process has been filed in other, Senator, to find himself facing expulsion proceedings, preferred to resign. The most recent case was Bob Packwood, who resigned in 1995. The Senate also has passed several resolutions that allow you to censor a particular member, by a simple majority (51%) of the votes in favor of censure, in a vote. But censorship does not remove a given senator of his office.

Senate History

According to the Articles of Confederation, the US Congress was a unicameral body where each state had one vote. However, the inefficiency of these items in the federal government has made the Congress conduct a constitutional convention in 1787. All US states except Rhode Island agreed to send representatives officers to this convention. Many delegates called for a second chamber, which would be based in the House of Lords, the aristocratic house of the UK Parliament. For example, John Dickinson said that “the members of the second chamber should be renowned persons, distinguished by their position in life and its number of properties, and have a strong taste in the House of Lords.”

The creation of the new structure of the US Congress was one of the most controversial issues during this convention. The Virginia Plan, created by James Madison, asked by a bicameral Congress, where members of the lower chamber would be elected directly by the population, and members of the upper chamber would be elected by members of the lower chamber. This plan had the support of officers of the US states most populated at the time, like Virginia, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, as proposed representation in Congress based on the population of the states. The smaller population of states, however, supported the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress where each state would be equally represented in Congress.

Eventually, officials-representatives reached an agreement, the Connecticut Compromise, also known as “The Great Compromise,” in which the number of members per state in one of the Houses of Congress (the House of Representatives) would be based on the population of data States, while each state would have the same number of members in the other chamber (the Senate). The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states (9 of 13) in 1788 and entered into force on 4 March 1789. The Senate began its first legislative session on April 6. The Founding Fathers wanted the Senate to be a more stable body, deliberative than the House of Representatives. James Madison described the purpose of the Senate as “a necessary fence against instability and passion.” Then, senators were chosen directly by the legislature of each state.


During the early nineteenth century, the Senate was marked by service speakers and renowned politicians such as Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, Stephen A. Douglas and Thomas Hart Benton. This was, however, was also marked by great internal division among senators the industrialized North, pro-abolitionism, and between South senators of the farming character, dependent on slave labor. During most of the first half of the century, there was to be a political balance between North and South, in the US Senate, while the balance in the House of Representatives fell to the side of northerners, since growth rates North population was significantly higher than in the South The Southern senators could often block legislation passed in the House of Representatives. – body dominated by the US North – as the number of slave and abolitionist States was equal in the Senate.

Increasing friction between pro-abolitionist senators and pro-slavery senators, and the increasing expansion of the United States towards the west, which gradually began to create new American states, most populated by pro-abolitionist settlers eventually caused the secession of eleven states of the American south in 1861, which formed the Confederate States of America, secession that led to the American Civil War, which led to the military defeat of the Confederacy and the final abolition of slavery in the United States.

The years of reconstruction that followed by the years of the American Civil War were marked by great victories of the Republican Party in the US government, primarily in the elections for members of the House of Representatives and the president. This is because this political party was associated by most of the industrialized northern population of the United States as a major factor for the US victory over the Confederate States.

The efforts of the Radical Republicans led to the impeachment of US President Andrew Johnson process – a Democrat – in 1868, held primarily because of political factors. However, this process was eventually shelved, because the Senate. This needed to approve Johnson’s impeachment in a vote where at least 66% of votes in favor would be needed. By a single vote, Johnson was not forced to resign, and impeachment proceedings was filed.

After the reconstruction in 1877, a new period of intense economic development began. This period was marked by major political divisions in the American electorate. Both the Republicans and the Democrats won political majorities in the Senate several times, but none managed to get large majorities. At the same time, the Senate went into an era of irrelevance, in great contrast to the Senate of the pre-Civil War American era. Very few senators had long and renowned career in the Senate, with most serving for only one term. Corruption cases were also common in the Senate – nine cases of bribery were discovered between 1866 and 1906. Public opinion, moreover, came to see the Senate as a body of the American socioeconomic elite. Various political and social groups began to press the US Congress to cause the US Senate senators were directly elected by the population of the states from which these senators represent, and not by the Legislature of these states data. This goal was achieved in 1913 with the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment to the US Constitution. This amendment, as a result, caused the senators to become more responsive to the public of their status.

During the 1910s, a leadership structure in the Senate developed with Henry Cabot Lodge and John Worth Kern becoming unofficial leaders of the Democratic and Republican parties, respectively, in the Senate. Democrats chose their first official leader in the Senate – Oscar Underwood – in 1925. In the same year, Republicans also choose their leader – Charles Curtiss. Initially, the powers of leaders of political parties in the Senate were very limited, with the senators – especially the presidents of important committees, still more powerful. However, the influence and the powers of political party leaders in the Senate gradually grew, especially during the office term of skilled leaders such as Lyndon B. Johnson.

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Cosmetic Industry Developments in the United States

From its earliest days, the United States has been at the forefront of cosmetic innovation, entrepreneurship and regulation.The timeline below represents a brief history of the important developments, advances, and American usage trends in cosmetics, as well as a regulatory history of cosmetics in the United States.

1848: Congress passes the Drug Importation Act, the first such federal control over drugs in the United States, which mandates the U.S. Customs Service inspection of imported drugs to prevent entry of adulterated or contaminated drugs from overseas.

1862: President Abraham Lincoln appoints chemist Charles M. Wetherill to serve in the new Department of Agriculture. This laid the foundation for the Bureau of Chemistry, the forbearer of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

1880: Peter Collier, the chief chemist in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, recommends that Congress pass a national food and drug law. The bill is eventually defeated, but precipitated the introduction of more than 100 food and drug laws in Congress over the next 25 years. 1886: David McConnell founds the California Perfume Company (CPC) which was, strangely, then located in New York. Over time, the company continues to grow and experience great success, selling five million units in North America during World War I alone. In 1928, CPC sells its first products — toothbrush, a talcum and a vanity set — under the name by which it is commonly known today: Avon.

1894: The number of U.S. firms manufacturing perfumery and toilet goods increases from 67 in 1880 to 262 in 1900. In 1894, the extremely competitive nature of the industry drives a group led by New York perfumer Henry Dalley to found the Manufacturing Perfumers’ Association. The group evolved over time and in 1970 changed its name to the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association (CTFA).

1900: By 1900, cosmetics are in widespread use in nearly all societies around the world, including the United States.

1904: Max Factor, a Polish-American cosmetician and former cosmetic expert for the Russian royal family, begins selling his rouges and creams in the United States at the St. Louis World’s Fair.

1907: Eugene Schueller, a young French chemist, invents modern synthetic hair dye which he calls “Auroele.” In 1909, Schueller names his company Societe Francaise de Teintures Inoffensives por Cheveux (Safe Hair Dye Company of France) — the company that today has become L’Oreal.

1910s: American women begin to fashion their own form of mascara by applying beads of wax to their eyelashes.

1913: Chemist T.L. Williams creates Maybelline Mascara for his sister, Mabel.

1914: Because of the onset of World War I, American women gain more disposable income and discretion over its use, leading to a boom in domestic makeup sales.

1919: Congress passes the 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, commonly known as Prohibition. As originally drafted, the amendment might have outlawed perfumes and toilet goods because of their alcohol content. However, the Manufacturing Perfumers’ Association (MPA) mobilized its forces and Congress clarified the language to exempt products that are unfit for use as beverages.

1920: The flapper look comes into fashion for the first time, and with it comes increased cosmetic use: dark eyes, red lipstick, red nail polish, and the suntan, which is invented as a fashion statement by Coco Chanel. Cosmetics and fragrances are manufactured and mass marketed in America for the first time.

1922: The Manufacturing Perfumers’ Association (MPA) changes its name to the American Manufacturers of Toilet Articles (AMTA).

1924: In U.S. v. 95 Barrels Alleged Apple Cider Vinegar , the Supreme Court holds that the Food and Drugs Act prohibits all statements, designs or devices on a product’s label that may mislead or deceive, even if technically true.

1920-1930: The first liquid nail polish, several forms of modern base, powdery blushes and the powder compact are introduced.

1928: Max Factor, now living in Hollywood, develops and introduces pancake makeup because of the adjustments required to best capture faces on film.

1930: Due to the influence of movie stars, the Hollywood “tan” look emerges and adds to the desire for tanned skin made popular first by Coco Chanel.

1930: Max Factor unveils the first lip-gloss.

1932: In the midst of the Great Depression, brothers Charles and Joseph Revson, along with chemist Charles Lachman, found Revlon. The founders had discovered a unique manufacturing process for nail enamel, using pigments instead of dyes. This innovation ultimately led to Revlon being a multimillion dollar corporation within six years.

1936: Eugene Schueller, founder of L’Oreal, invents sunscreen.

1938: Congress passes the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act , implementing the following new measures: 1940 and World War II: Leg makeup is developed in response to shortages of stockings.

1940: The FDA is transferred from the Department of Agriculture to the Federal Security Agency. Walter G. Campbell is appointed as the first Commissioner of Food and Drugs.

1944: Congress passes the Public Health Service Act which, among other areas, covers the regulation of biological products.

1950: The Modern Era of the cosmetics business begins. Artificial skin tanning aids are developed, and television advertising is first implemented in earnest. Companies such as Proctor & Gamble begin to sponsor daytime television programs that will eventually be called “soap operas.”

1952: Mum, the first company to commercially market deodorant, launches the first roll-on deodorant, which is inspired by the design of another recently invented product — the ballpoint pen.

1955: Crest, the first toothpaste with fluoride clinically proven to fight cavities, is introduced. 1958: FDA publishes in the Federal Register its first list of substances Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS), which contains nearly 200 substances.

1960: Congress passes the Color Additive Amendment , which requires manufacturers to establish the safety of color additives in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. The Delaney provision prohibits the approval of any color additive shown to induce cancer in humans or animals. The FDA attempted to interpret the new law as applying to every ingredient of color-imparting products, such as lipstick and rouge, but the courts rebuffed this proposal. 1960: False eyelashes became popular. “Natural” products based on botanical ingredients, such as carrot juice and watermelon extract were introduced.

1962: President John F. Kennedy proclaims the Consumer Bill of Rights in a message to Congress, in which he includes the right to safety, the right to be informed, the right to choose and the right to be heard.

1965: Aerosol deodorant is introduced.

1966: Congress enacts the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act which requires all consumer products in interstate commerce to be honestly and informatively labeled, with FDA enforcing provisions on foods, drugs, cosmetics and medical devices.

1970: The Toilet Goods Association (TGA) changes its name to the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association (CTFA). The environmental movement brings challenges to the cosmetic and fragrance industry. The use of some popular ingredients is banned following the enactment of endangered species protection legislation. Some examples include musk and ambergris.

1976: The CTFA, with the support of the FDA, establishes the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel . The goal of the CIR is to bring together worldwide published and unpublished data on the safety of cosmetic ingredients, and for an independent panel to subsequently review that data. The seven-member panel consists of scientists and physicians from the fields of dermatology, pharmacology, chemistry and toxicology. The members are selected by a steering committee and publicly nominated by government agencies, industry, and consumers. The panel thoroughly reviews and assesses the safety of ingredients used in cosmetics in an open, unbiased, and expert manner, and ultimately publishes the final results in the peer-reviewed International Journal of Toxicology. Within five years of its founding, the CIR had reviewed 216 commonly used ingredients.

The 1980s: Concerns about contaminated makeup emerged late in the decade. An FDA report in 1989 found that more than five percent of samples collected from counters in department stores were contaminated with mold, fungi, and pathogenic organisms. Additionally, manufacturers began to offer products labeled “hypoallergenic” or “natural.”

1999: The first ever Cosmetics Harmonization and International Cooperation (CHIC) meeting is held in Brussels, Belgium. At the conference, representatives from the U.S. FDA; the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW); Health Canada; and the Directorate General III of the European Union discuss broad cosmetics topics, including: basic safety substantiation, exchange of data and information, development of an international alert system and an international memorandum of cooperation.

2006: The CTFA develops the Consumer Commitment Code , which goes beyond the requirements of the law to highlight the proactive and responsible approach to product safety supported by cosmetic companies. The code gives a greater degree of assurance of safety for consumers and transparency for government regulators.

2007: The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association (CTFA) changes its name to the Personal Care Products Council ( the “Council”). The environmental health movement brings challenges to the personal care products and cosmetics industry. The Council supports numerous legislative initiatives in the states of California, Massachusetts and New York, and launches to assist consumers in understanding the products they use and the industry record of safety in the formulation of those products.

2012: As of March 2012, the Cosmetics Ingredient Review Expert Panel has evaluated 2,650 ingredients and it continues to receive praise from regulators and consumers alike for its efforts to ensure product safety. – See more at:

Today: we see cosmetics and makeup all over the internet in webites about makeup that inform and sell makeup without leaving the sofa.

How does the Senate Works

The Seventeenth Amendment to the US Constitution says that any vacant position in the Senate can be filled through the use of special elections. A special election need not be performed immediately after a given position is vacant. Instead, this special election is held, usually on the same day the next national election for senator. If this special election to fill a given position of a given state, coincidentally, happens with the election to the second position of Senator of the same state, then, these elections are not held together, but rather are held separately. A senator elected in a special election remains in office until the end of the original term of six years (ie only fills the remaining time craft former senator who left this given vacant position), not one by one six very term years.

In addition, the Seventeenth Amendment says that the legislative power of any American state can give to the governor of their states the power to fill any vacant position until these positions are filled through the use of a special election. All US states except Arizona, have passed laws authorizing the governor to choose an official to function as a senator in the vacant position until this position is filled after conducting an election.

Senators are entitled to use the prefix “The Honorable” in their names. The annual salary of each senator is $ 162,100 (since 2005). The President pro tempore and the leaders of political parties in the Senate receive higher annual salaries. In general, senators are seen as the most important political figures than members of the House of Representatives, since the number of senators is smaller, the office term is most often represent more inhabitants by state (except in a relatively short States inhabited, such as Wyoming, who have only two or representative), participate in more committees, and have rights to more workers. This prestige is reflected in the political career of American presidents (or any presidential candidate). Many more candidates for president of the United States were senators than members of the House of Representatives. More information here:

What is the US Senate?

The US Senate is one of the two chambers of the US Congress, the other being the House of Representatives. In the Senate, each US state is equally represented by two members, regardless of its population. As a result, the total number of senators in the US Senate is one hundred.


The mandate of the senators is six years. Elections occur, but every two years to the choice of about a third of positions in the US Senate. The US vice president is the presiding officer of the legislative sessions of the US Senate, but it’s not a senator, and as such, do not vote, although it has the casting vote in cases of tied votes. The Senate is seen as a more deliberative political body than the House of Representatives; the Senate is smaller and the term of its members is larger offices, making the atmosphere in the US Senate is more formal and more isolated from the American public than in the House of Representatives. In addition, the Senate has several unique powers given by the Constitution of the United States, not given to the House of Representatives. One of the most significant powers is the fact that the US President can only ratify treaties and conduct political meetings “with the advice and consent of the Senate,” according to Article of the US Constitution.

A bicameral Congress was created as a result of the Connecticut Compromise, an agreement made on February 21, 1787, in a Constitutional Convention, under which US states would be represented in the House of Representatives in accordance with their respective populations, but would equally represented in the Senate. The US Constitution says that the approval of both houses of the US Congress chambers is required for the passage of legislation. The exclusive powers of the Senate, given by the American Constitution, are seen as more important than the powers given by the Constitution to the House of Representatives. As a result, the responsibilities of the Senate, considered the Upper Chamber, are more extensive than the responsibilities of the House of Representatives, the Lower House.

The origin of the name “Senate” comes from the Roman Senate. The chamber of the US Senate is located in the North Wing of the US Capitol in Washington, the national capital. The chamber of the House of Representatives, in turn, is located in the South Wing of the same structure.

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